is the Bible true

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Is the Bible true?

Is the Bible fake? Is there any evidence for the Bible? Why should I believe the Bible?

The Bible claims to be the word of God. Does one have to just accept this by blind faith or is there evidence to support this claim? Here we will examine just a couple of reasons of why you can believe your bible. It is not at all a blind faith. You do not have to throw your brains out the window to be a Christian!

 You can click on Is the Bible the Word of God” to start reading at the beginning of this topic or use the page index to jump to the part that interest you most.

See Free PDF Books for list of downloadable Books quoted from here.

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Is the Bible the word of God?

Overview of content in this section is as follows:

IS THE BIBLE THE WORD OF GOD?
Definition of the word "inspired"

What about other books that claim to be the word of God?
Each section in this part is contrasted to the Book of Mormon

It's contents should be beyond the ability of mans writing creativity

It should be able to withstand the test of time and attacks of critics

Quote from Time magazine

The historical part of it should be able to be confirmed with archeology, it should be historically accurate.

Its prophetic messages should not be able to be proven false.

There should be evidence to show past fulfillment of its prophecies.

Science should not be able to prove its message to be untrue

Since the book claims to be ancient there should be some sort of manuscript evidence verifying its transmission of the text to be accurate

Its message should have the ability to change people's lives

Prophecy in the Bible shows its authenticity
Daniel part 1
The dating of the book of Daniel
Test of a prophet

Late dating the Book of Daniel
Date of the Septuagint
Josephus dating Daniel
Is Josephus reliable?
Dating Nebuchadnezzar
Dating Daniel with Ezekiel
Daniel according to Jesus and Paul
Webster’s Family Encyclopedia dates Daniel
Easton’s Bible Dictionary and the language of Daniel
Context claims Daniel as the author
Summary of Daniel Part 1
Interesting Quotes

Daniel Part 2
World history told in advance and proven accurate
God placed Nebuchadnezzar in power

Nebuchadnezzar’s dream
Interpretation of the dream
Introducing the Medes & Persians
Those who question Belshazzar
So what really took place in history?
Introducing the kingdom of Greece
The Roman Empire
A divided empire
In the days of those kings a kingdom that will last forever
Why is any of this important?

The Bible Reveals Scientific Fact Prior to Human Discovery
The earth suspended in space
Does air have weight?
Life of the flesh is in the blood
The hydrological cycle
Springs in the ocean floor
Jet streams
Stretching out the heavens

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IS THE BIBLE REALLY THE WORD OF GOD?
What about other books that are claimed to be the word of God?

Let’s start by looking to see what the Bible says about itself (all underline, bold, and italic emphasis in this section are mine): 2 Timothy 3:16-17 — "All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work."

The word "inspired" here in the Greek literally means "divinely breathed" by God. What does God-breathed mean? God spoke through men to say exactly what He wanted to say. At the same time He allowed us to see the personality of the writer without deviating from the message that He wanted put forth. So every word in our Greek and Hebrew Bible is really from God. Of course, that is quite a claim, and it is reasonable for someone to question why they should believe this. Just because someone says that a book is the Word of God, or even if the Bible claims to be in its own text, should we believe that this is true? Mormons tell us that the Book of Mormon is also the Word of God. If a book (or set of books) is actually the Word of God, there should be some sort of evidence to validate such a claim.

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Let’s subject both the Bible and the Book of Mormon to the following test. The true Word of God should:

  • Be beyond the ability of man’s writing creativity;
  • Be able to withstand the test of time and attacks of critics;
  • Be able to verify its historical claims with evidence from archaeology;
  • Be able to show evidence of past fulfillment of its prophecies (the prophetic messages should not proven false);
  • Be scientifically sound;
  • Be able to prove claims of ancient text and verifying its transmission of the text to be accurate;
  • Be life-changing in its message.

 As I will show, the Bible can pass all of these tests, validating its claim of being the Word of God. Conversely, the Book of Mormon fails several of these tests.

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1) Be beyond the ability of man’s writing creativity.
It should be remembered that the Bible is not just one book. The Bible actually contains sixty-six books, from at least forty different authors. The Bible covers a time-span of a few thousand years. The authors lived in different centuries.It was written on three different continents — Africa, Asia, and Europe. The authors of these books were from different backgrounds and lifestyles, and included a doctor, kings, a fisherman, and an ex-Pharisee. The Bible was also written in three different languages — Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek. In theory, it would seem impossible to get this many people — from different walks of life, different countries, diverse cultures, time frames, and languages — to agree without conflict on controversial subjects such as God, sin, and salvation. And yet it happened — with so much harmony that each book is not really complete without the other. These books together have one central theme (Jesus): the coming of the Messiah, His arrival and work, and looking for His return. This would seem impossible unless one mind is controlling the effort. This one mind cannot be a man’s, since the time frame is such a long period and the authors lived in differetnt centuries. Man simply does not live that long. What other set of books can make such a claim as this?

The Book of Mormon cannot claim this — at least not in any way that can be verified, because it has no known ancient manuscripts. Unlike the Bible, it can't be shown that the contents of the book cover any large time period. How do we know Alma, Nephi, or any of the characters mentioned actually existed long ago? Without any manuscripts for the Book of Mormon, we have no way of proving that Joseph Smith is not the author of the entire book. Some have claimed that a man could not write fantasy in such detail. Having read Tolkien’s The Hobbit, I know this is indeed possible.

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2) Be able to withstand the test of time and attacks of critics.
People have attacked the Bible for a couple of hundred years. Yet it has not been proven untrue in any of its teachings or history. Time Magazine made an interesting statement that I would like to quote.

From Time Magazine, December 30, 1974: "After more than two centuries of facing the heaviest scientific guns that could be brought to bear, the bible has survived and [is] perhaps better for the siege even on the critics’ own terms. Historical fact, the scriptures seem more acceptable now than they did when the rationalists began the attack."

On the other hand, numerous books have been written proving that the content of The Book of Mormon has no historical significance. The Book of Mormon has nothing to validate its claims. The fact is, in many ways The Book of Mormon is proven unreliable. I'll mention just a couple of books that show this — Archeology and The Book of Mormon by Jerald and Sandra Tanner, and Are the Mormon Scriptures Reliable? By Harry L.Ropp.

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3 ) Be able to verify its historical claims with evidence from archaeology.
There are numerous books that are full of archaeological discoveries confirming the historical accuracy of the Bible. I cite here just one archaeological discovery confirming the Bible's accuracy — all the way back to some of the content in the book of Genesis. The city of Ebla was discovered in an archaeological dig around Jerusalem. Between 1968 and 1972, archaeologists found 16,642 clay tablets. The tablets have been dated back to about 2,300 BC.  There are several cities mentioned on these tablets that are also mentioned in the Bible, such as Adma, Zeboim, Zoar, Damascus, Jerusalem, Carchemish, Dor, Hazor, Megiddo, Lachish, Gaza, Sinai, Joppa, Harran, Ashdod, and, the ones I find the most interesting: Sodom and Gomorrah. These two cities have never been located — because as we read in Genesis, God destroyed them. Yet we know that they really existed because they are mentioned in the tablets discovered in Ebla. Evidently, Ebla had a trading enterprise with Sodom and Gomorrah. The tablets also confirm the existence of the Assyrians, the Hittites, and the Canaanites. More detail can be found in a book by Dr. Clifford Wilson titled The Ebla Tablets. There was also an article concerning Ebla in Time Magazine on Oct. 18, 1976.

The Book of Mormon is allegedly about a people of Jewish descent that migrated to North America before Christ. We find this in L.D.S Scripture, “The Pearl of Great Price” (Joseph Smith History 1:3 and 34; also known as Joseph Smith 2, 1:3 and 34.E) All other references are in L.D.S Scripture the Book of Mormon E These people supposedly grew into a great nation. There were so many people that they spread out upon the face of the land. These people had buildings, machinery, and metals including steel. (Jarom 1:8).They had all manner of tools (Ether 10:25). They had silks, gold, silver, horses, and various other animals, including elephants (Ether 9:16-19).  There were so many people they could be found from coast to coast (Helaman 3:8). They had wars where as many as 10,000 people died in a single battle (Mormon 6:11). Not only were there people from coast to coast, but there were buildings as well. (Mormon 1:7). The people built ships, Temples, synagogues, and more (Helaman 3:14). The people had a monetary system, which included lots of different types of coins (Alma 11:4-19). It is hard to imagine that a people that were spread from coast to coast, and who built ships, buildings, machinery, and so forth — could simply disappear and not leave any trace. Not one archaeological discovery has ever been linked directly to the contents of the Book of Mormon. The Smithsonian Institute even states that the American Indians did not have horses. Silk and steel were not used in the New World before 1492.

Following is an excerpt from Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Vol.1, listing for “Archaeology”: “Archaeological data from the ancient Near East and the Americas have been used both to support and to discredit the Book of Mormon. Many scholars see no support for the Book of Mormon in the archaeological records, since no one has found any inscriptional evidence for, or material remains that can be tied directly to, any of the persons, places, or things mentioned in the book (Smithsonian Institution)”.

Another reason to question the historical accuracy of the Book of Mormon is a discrepancy between its information and that of the Bible (which, remember, has already been verified archaeologically), The Bible declares that Jesus was to be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2, Matthew 2:1); but the Book of Mormon says that Jesus’ birth would be at Jerusalem (Alma 7:10).

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4) Be able to show evidence of past fulfillment of its prophecies (the prophetic messages should not be proven false).

When wondering is the Bible the word of God? One should keep in mind the Bible contains hundreds of prophecies, some of which are yet regarding the future — and many of which have already have been proven to be true. In addition, the Bible has never been proven wrong in any of its prophetic messages. Here is one example of a prophetic message which came true.

  • Isaiah 44:28-45:1:"It is I who says of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd! And he will perform all My desire.' And he declares of Jerusalem, 'She will be built,' and of the temple, 'Your foundation will be laid.' Thus says the LORD to Cyrus His anointed, whom I have taken by the right hand, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open doors before him so that gates will not be shut.”

Note that Cyrus is mentioned by name, although at this point he has not even been born. What's also interesting about this prophetic message is that at the time Isaiah wrote this, the city was not yet destroyed and the temple was still standing. Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, came along and destroyed the city about a hundred years later. About 160 years after Isaiah's writing the temple was completed, because a Persian king named Cyrus gave the decree to rebuild the city and the temple. The American Peoples Encyclopedia, Vol.11, (page 395) dates the time of Isaiah's death at about 668 BC. The same volume on page 611 states that Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city and the temple in586 BC. In Vol. 6 (pages 688-689) of The American Peoples Encyclopedia, we find that Cyrus liberated the Jews and allowed them to return to rebuild Jerusalem and even restored sacred vessels taken from the temple. This took place around 539 BC; the new temple was completed in 515 BC (Vol.11, page 611).

In all fairness I cannot say that I am familiar with any proven false prophecies within the Book of Mormon itself. However, there is also no evidence to support that the people or places written about in the Book of Mormon ever existed. There are no ancient manuscripts for the Book of Mormon. There is no archaeological confirmation of anything in the Book of Mormon. We are left pretty much taking Joseph Smith's word for everything. Joseph Smith made numerous prophecies that are recorded in other books which can be proven false. One example can be found in the Doctrine and Covenants, Section 84:1-5.E There Smith prophesied that a temple would be built in the western boundaries in the state of Missouri, and dedicated by his own hand during the generation of those living in 1832. The Mormons failed to build such a temple during Joseph Smith's lifetime, making him a false prophet. According to the Bible, a true prophet of God must be correct 100 percent of the time. This is because God is the one who causes a truly God-given prophecy to come to pass (Deuteronomy 18:18-22, Ezekiel 12:22-25, Habakkuk 2:2-3).

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5) Be scientifically sound.

Most informed Christians will readily admit the Bible is not a science textbook. While the Bible cannot be proven to be the Word of God based solely on science — neither does science refute the Bible. They are in harmony in areas where they do meet. But, the Bible was written to reveal God to mankind, not science. I would like to mention one area where science and the Bible do meet together. Consider Job 26:7: "He stretches out the north over empty space, and hangs the earth on nothing." Keep in mind that Job lived almost 2,000 years before Christ. This idea that the earth was suspended on nothing was not even considered by scientists for thousands of years after Job. Now, with our satellites and trips into space, we know this to be true. But this was not known in Job's day. The Egyptians declared the earth rested on pillars. The Greeks said it was carried on the back of Atlas. People believed many things, but they did not come close to what we know to be true today, and what Job declared a few thousand years ago.

DNA studies now reveal that the Book of Mormon is incorrect in its claim that the Israelites are the main ancestors of modern day Native Americans. In 2003, Living Hope Ministries produced a 49-minute documentary that uses genetic research to challenge fundamental historical claims in the Book of Mormon: “DNA vs. the Book of Mormon” (written by Joel P. Kramer, directed by Joel P. Kramer and Jeremy Reyes H1). An internet search of this title will produce many options for those interested in purchasing this video.

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6) Be able to prove claims of ancient text and verifying transmission of the text to be accurate.
           
It is natural to question how we know that what we have in our Bible today is the same as what was originally written. Many people make the mistake of assuming that errors have crept in during the transmission of the text. For example, the Mormons’“8th Article of Faith” states: "We believe the Bible to be the word of God in so far as it is translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God". Mormons teach that the Catholic Church has perverted much of the Bible, ignoring an abundance of manuscript evidence, some of which pre-dates the Catholic Church.

We need to remember that the Bible was originally written in Greek and Hebrew — not English. Many have wondered why there are so many versions of the Bible: because when translating a book from one language to another, scholars will differ slightly on word choice and sentence structure. Also, the English language itself has evolved since the King James Version of the Bible was produced. We simply do not talk in King James’ style any longer. When comparing the many different versions, however, we find the message and doctrines are the same in all of the legitimate translations.

Since our English Bibles are translated from original languages of Greek and Hebrew, let’s narrow focus to that. How do we know that the Greek and Hebrew did not change as it was passed down through time, before we translated it into English? This is where manuscript evidence becomes important. There is far more manuscript evidence to support the writings of the Bible than any other ancient history that is known in the world today. There are more than 5,300 known Greek manuscripts for the New Testament. This is more than enough to compare to our Greek text today. There is also further confirmation from the 10,000 manuscripts of the Latin Vulgate. If this was not enough, there are 9,300 earlier manuscripts. Even without all of this evidence, the vast majority of the New Testament could be reconstructed from the writings of the early church fathers. These are the men who studied directly under the Apostles, and the people two studied under them. They did a lot of writing quoting the Apostles. It is true that textual variances can be found in these manuscripts. The vast majority of these discrepancies concern minor things, such as spelling. None of the discrepancies change anything in the teachings or message of the Bible.

We do not have a large number of manuscripts for the Old Testament like we do the New Testament. There are two reasons for this. First, the further back you go, the more things are destroyed by a natural aging. Second, the people themselves destroyed any copy of the Old Testament that was not perfect. To them, the copying of the text was extremely sacred. There was a ritual that had to be followed in every detail. If the columns were not of equal size throughout the manuscript, the entire copy was destroyed. One of the greatest proofs of the reliability of the Old Testament is the Dead Sea Scrolls, which were discovered in 1947. These scrolls contained a portion of every book in the Old Testament with the exception of Esther. The entire book of Isaiah was found here also. When examined, these scrolls confirmed that the Hebrew text we have today has not changed from that of antiquity. It is also important to realize that these scrolls date back to before the time when Jesus Christ was here. Jesus seemed to view the text they had as accurate. Consider the following passages spoken by Jesus.

  • Matthew 5:18: "For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass away from the Law, until all is accomplished.”
  • Luke 24:25:“And He said to them, ‘O foolish men and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken!’”

 In both cases Jesus was referring to the written Old Testament. His statements certainly showed that He believed their text to be reliable. The Dead Sea Scrolls date back before Jesus' time, which has proven our Hebrew text today is the same. Certainly since we have the same Hebrew text that they had in Jesus’ day, we also should consider it reliable.

There is no known ancient manuscript that shows evidence for the Book of Mormon. Joseph Smith claimed to have translated it from some gold plates which, conveniently, disappeared — and there is no other proof. The earliest copy of the Book of Mormon known is from the 1800s. Comparing the Book of Mormon today to the Book of Mormon of the 1800s, nearly 4,000 changes can be shown. Some of them are minor textual changes, while others change meaning and doctrine. More information and where to purchase this can be found at UTLM.org

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7) Be life-changing in its message.

There are those who claim the name of Christianity and then do awful things, even in the name of God. Still, one cannot deny that millions of people have changed their lives after accepting the Gospel message of the Bible. We cannot discount the many that are genuine just because there are also some counterfeits.

There are also many Mormons who have changed their lives for the better. I was raised in an active Mormon family and I can testify to their sincerity. Those who follow their religion are good people who deserve respect and admiration. The statement, "There is truth in all religions", is true to some extent. Non-believers who practice some moral teachings from the Bible will certainly live better lives than if they did not. And while the Mormon Church also teaches and practices some good principles, those principles will not get anyone into heaven. We are not saved on the basis of good deeds, but by God’s grace, because of what Jesus did on the cross (John 3:16, Ephesians 2:8-10). A person can be very sincere and still be wrong (Proverbs 14:12). The Mormon Church does teach some good Biblical principles, but it does not teach the same God, Jesus, or salvation that we find in the Bible. We need to remember that people who are deceived and mislead are not the enemy.

Ephesians 6:12: “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places.” We need to speak out against false doctrines, remembering that the people deceived by them are also people who Jesus died for.

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The Book of Daniel and Prophecy
Part 1, Dating the Book of Daniel

The Bible claims to be the Word of God. In the Bible we are constantly confronted by words that indicate certain text is “the word of the Lord”, or the claim that “God said” something. One of the purposes of prophecy is so that we become confronted with the reality of God.  In Scripture we are often told of something that will take place at some future time; then the prophecy is followed by "you will know that I am the LORD." It is not unreasonable to wonder; “How do we know God really said this?” The sure fulfillment of the prophecy is given to us as one of the means in which we should test a prophet to see if he is indeed speaking God's words.

  • Deuteronomy 18:21-22: "And you may say in your heart, 'How shall we know the word which the LORD has not spoken?' When a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the LORD has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him.”

Another test of a prophet: if someone tells us to follow after other gods, he is a false prophet (Deuteronomy 13:1-4.)

Fulfilled prophecy not only confronts us with the reality of God, but it also gives us confirmation that the Bible really is the Word of God, as it claims to be. I, for one, am glad that Christianity is not a "blind faith”. Although we do use faith, there are also sound reasons to accept the Bible as the written word of God. One should keep in mind that Daniel is just one of the books of the Bible that contains prophecy.

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LATE DATING THE BOOK OF DANIEL

When it comes to prophecy many people try to claim that a fulfilled prophecy was written after the actual event. This is called “late dating”. They do this simply because they do not believe in a God that can forecast the future. The Book of Daniel is well-known for its prophecy, which accurately foretold events that later took place in history, and goes on to tell us of events that will still take place in our future and tie in directly with the Book of Revelation concerning end times and the return of the Lord Jesus Christ. Unfortunately some scholars put inaccurate information which is based only on their biased opinion into reference works. According to Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics late dating the Book of Daniel did not start due to some archaeological discovery or historical fact, but rather it was late dated because certain scholars did not believe in miracles.

Daniel foretold the future accurately, which is miraculous; therefore they assumed a later date.

While reading, remember that on historical timeline, numbers or dates get larger the farther back you go: BC 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 1, 100, 200, 300 AD. Following is an example in which the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia has a problem with the dates.

  • “Daniel, a book in the Old Testament of the BIBLE, is listed with the Major Prophets by Christians and with the Writings (Ketuvim) by the Jews. It comprises six stories of the trials of Daniel and his companions while they served at the court of Babylon, as well as four visions of the end of the world. The book takes its name, not from the author, who is actually unknown, but from its hero, a 6th-century Jew. Internal evidence indicates that the book was writen during the Maccabean wars (167-164 BC).” 

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The "Internal evidence" that most people use to support late-dating the Book of Daniel  is that Daniel wrote about things in the future that he could not possibly know — but God can foretell the future. As we will see next in the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia excerpt, it is not possible for the book of Daniel to have been written during the Maccabean wars (167-164 BC).

  • “The Septuagint, commonly designated LXX, is the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament of the BIBLE, the title "seventy" referring to the tradition that it was the work of 70 translators (or 72 in some traditions).  The translation was made from the Hebrew Bible by Hellenistic Jews during the period 275-100 BC at Alexandria.”

The problem with this theory is that in the latter of the two dates there is a 108 year gap (275 BC - 167 BC = 108 years). This would result in the Book of Daniel being translated from Hebrew to Greek 108 years before the book was actually written. Even if we say that Daniel was not written until 167-164 BC, as Grolier's earlier excerpt suggests, we would still have a problem. The Septuagint is only a translation of older Hebrew manuscripts. This means that the book of Daniel has to pre-date the Septuagint, thus making the dating as found for the Book of Daniel in Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia inaccurate. At best one would have to argue that Daniel was written in 167 BC and then translated into the Septuagint in 100 BC, only sixty-seven years later. It is very unlikely that the Jews were fooled into accepting the Book of Daniel as authoritative, with Daniel as the author, if the book had not even existed sixty-eight years earlier — and why would they bother translating the book from Hebrew to Greek if it was not accepted as an authoritative work?

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Flavius Josephus was a Jewish historian who lived AD 37–100. In Chapter 10 of The Works of Josephus we read the following:

  • “(186) But now Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, took some of the most noble of the Jews that were children, and the kinsmen of Zedekiah their king, such as were remarkable for their beauty of their bodies and comeliness of their countenances, and delivered them into the hands of tutors, and to the improvement to be made by them.  He also made some of them to be eunuchs; (187) which course he took also with those of other nations whom he had taken in the flower of their age and afforded them their diet from his own table, and had them instructed in the institutes of the country, and taught the learning of the Chaldeans; and they had now exercised themselves sufficiently in that wisdom which he had ordered they should apply themselves to. (188) Now among these there were four of the family of Zedekiah, of most excellent dispositions, the one of whom was called Daniel, another was called Ananias, another Misael, and the fourth Azarias: and the king of Babylon changed their names, and commanded that they should make use of other names.  (189) Daniel he called Baltasar; Ananias, Shadrach; Misael, Meshach; and Azarias, Abednego.”   (PDF pg. 400)  (See Daniel 1:1-7.)

           
Notice that this early historian places Daniel in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. Furthermore he gives an account of Daniel and his friends having their names changed by the king. This account is the same as the one we find in the Book of Daniel, indicating that the Biblical account is historically accurate. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar was not 167-164 BC when we are told that the book of Daniel was written. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar was approximately 561 BC - 605 BC. Are we to really to believe that less than a hundred years after the Maccabean wars this Jewish historian inaccurately placed Daniel in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar?

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Does Josephus have any credibility as a historian? Grolier’s seems to think so:

Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia

  • “Flavius Josephus, b. AD 37, d. after 93, was a Jewish historian whose works are invaluable sources for the history of the Jews under Roman domination.  A Pharisee, originally named Joseph ben Matthias, he reluctantly joined the revolt against Rome in AD 66 and served as commander in Galilee until captured by the Romans in 67.  Through the patronage of Vespasian, he later became a Roman citizen. Josephus's The Jewish War (75-79), a description of the tragic events of the revolt, is based to a large extent on his firsthand knowledge.  His Jewish Antiquities (93), although covering the history of the Jews from the Creation on, gives a particularly full account of the Maccabees and the dynasty of Herod. Josephus has been criticized for his subservience to the Romans, but he was a passionate defender of Jewish religion and culture, as shown in his apologia entitled Against Apion as well as in his historical works.”

Josephus also makes reference to the Book of Daniel in another account from The Works of Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews (Book 11, Chapter 8, #4-5):

  • “4. (321) But Sanballat thought he had now gotten a proper opportunity to make his attempt, so he renounced Darius, and taking with him seven thousand of his own subjects, he came to Alexander; and finding him beginning the siege of Tyre, he said to him, that he delivered up to him these men who came out of places under his dominion, and did gladly accept of him for their lord instead of Darius........”PDF pg. 438)

In this context we can see that this is Alexander the Great. Then following the context down we read the following:

  • “(337) And when the book of Daniel was showed him, wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended; (PDF pg. 439)

Considering that Josephus was a Jewish Historian it is very unlikely that he would have been fooled into believing that the Book of Daniel existed at the time of Alexander the Great; if in fact it was only written a hundred years or so earlier. It seems even more unlikely that he would be foolish enough to try to tell his readers of this account if he knew the book of Daniel did not exist at the time of Alexander the Great. This puts the Book of Daniel as already being completed and accepted about 200 years earlier than the date when it was supposed to have been written according to Grolier's. Alexander the Great was born around 356 BC and Grolier's dated the Book of Daniel as 167-164 BC.

Grolier’s Multimedia Encyclopedia

  • Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia. Alexander III, king of Macedonia, the first king to be called “the Great”, conquered the Persian empire and annexed it to Macedonia. The son of PHILLIP II and OLYMPIAS, he was born in 356 BC and brought up as crown prince.”

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We know that the Book of Daniel was not written during the Maccabean wars (167-164 BC) as the Grolier’s Multimedia Encyclopedia declares. We know this because the Hebrew manuscripts containing the Book of Daniel are proven older than that date by the dating of the Septuagint. Furthermore the early historian Josephus, who is considered an accurate source of information on the Jews and their religion, dates Daniel in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar was approximately 561 BC - 605 BC.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Copyright 1994-1998

  • Nebuchadnezzar II (b. c. 630 – d. c. 561 BC), the second and greatest king of the Chaldean dynasty of Babylonia (reigned c. 605-c. – 561 BC). He was known for his military might, the splendour of his capital, Babylon, and his important part in Jewish history.”

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Daniel is also mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel:

  • Ezekiel 14:12-16: “Then the word of the LORD came to me saying, ‘Son of man, if a country sins against Me by committing unfaithfulness, and I stretch out My hand against it, destroy its supply of bread, send famine against it, and cut off from it both man and beast, even though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job were in its midst, by their own righteousness they could only deliver themselves,’ declares the Lord GOD. ‘If I were to cause wild beasts to pass through the land, and they depopulated it, and it became desolate so that no one would pass through it because of the beasts, though these three men were in its midst, as I live,’ declares the Lord GOD, ‘they could not deliver either their sons or their daughters. They alone would be delivered, but the country would be desolate.’”

Since Daniel is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel in a non prophetic context it is reasonable to believe that Daniel must have been around before or during Ezekiel's lifetime. And when did Ezekiel live?

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Copyright 1994-1998

  • Ezekiel also spelled EZECHIEL, Hebrew YEHEZQEL (fl. early 6th century BC), prophet-priest of ancient Israel and the subject and in part the author of an Old Testament book that bears his name.”

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The Christian who accepts the Bible as the Word of God need only to look to the words of Jesus for confirmation. Jesus not only referred to Daniel as a prophet, but also made reference to what is found in the Book of Daniel. If Jesus accepts Daniel as a prophet and the Book of Daniel as prophecy, then the Christian has no reason to reject it.

  • Matthew 24:15-16: "Therefore when you see the abomination of desolation which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains...:
  • Daniel 9:27: "And he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering; and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate."
  • Daniel 12:11: "And from the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished, and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days.”

The Apostle Paul also makes reference to this.

  • II Thessalonians 2:3-4: “Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy comes first, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction, who opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, displaying himself as being God.”

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There are, of course, reference works that do date the book of Daniel correctly. Unfortunately among the many reference works, such references seem to be in the minority.

Webster's Family Encyclopedia, 1989 edition, vol.3, pg. 717:

  • Daniel  (6th century BC). An Old Testament prophet and Jewish exile in Babylon. The Book of Daniel is credited to him although some believe it to have been written in the 2nd century BC. The first six chapters tell of various mainly supernatural episodes involving Daniel and his companions under King Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar. The remaining six chapters are mostly apocaplyptic visions concerning the future of the Jews.”

Note that Webster's Family Encyclopedia acknowledges that some believe Daniel was written in the 2nd century BC, but still dates Daniel in the 6th century BC.

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Easton's Bible Dictionary:

  • Daniel, Book of is ranked by the Jews in that division of their Bible called the Hagiographa (Heb. Khethubim). (See BIBLE.) It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of the first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part, consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical.

 "The historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity. Daniel is the historian of the Captivity, the writer who alone furnishes any series of events for that dark and dismal period during which the harp of Israel hung on the trees that grew by the Euphrates. His narrative may be said in general to intervene between Kings and Chronicles on the one hand and Ezra on the other, or (more strictly) to fill out the sketch which the author of the Chronicles gives in a single verse in his last chapter: 'And them that had escaped from the sword carried he [i.e., Nebuchadnezzar] away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia (2 Chronicles 36:20).

“The prophetical part consists of three visions and one lengthened prophetical communication.

“The genuineness of this book has been much disputed, but the arguments in its favour fully establish its claims. (1.) We have the testimony of Christ (Matthew. 24:15; 25:31; 26:64) and his apostles (1 Corinthians 6:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:3) for its authority; and (2) the important testimony of Ezekiel (14:14, 20; 28:3). (3.) The character and records of the book are also entirely in harmony with the times and circumstances in which the author lived. (4.) The linguistic character of the book is, moreover, just such as might be expected. Certain portions (Daniel 2:4; 7) are written in the Chaldee language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra. The writer is familiar both with the Hebrew and the Chaldee, passing from the one to the other just as his subject required. This is in strict accordance with the position of the author and of the people for whom his book was written. That Daniel is the writer of this book is also testified to in the book itself (7:1, 28; 8:2; 9:2; 10:1, 2; 12:4, 5).”

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I would like to further emphasize the importance of Daniel claiming to be the author. We find references where Daniel speaks as though he is the author:

  • Daniel 8:15: “And it came about when I, Daniel, had seen the vision, that I sought to understand it; and behold, standing before me was one who looked like a man.”  
  • Daniel 8:27: “Then I, Daniel, was exhausted and sick for days. Then I got up again and carried on the king's business; but I was astounded at the vision, and there was none to explain it.”  
  • Daniel 9:2: “in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, observed in the books the number of the years which was revealed as the word of the LORD to Jeremiah the prophet for the completion of the desolations of Jerusalem, namely, seventy years.”  
  • Daniel 10:2: “In those days I, Daniel, had been mourning for three entire weeks.”  
  • Daniel 10:7: “Now I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, while the men who were with me did not see the vision; nevertheless, a great dread fell on them, and they ran away to hide themselves.”  
  • Daniel 12:5: “Then I, Daniel, looked and behold, two others were standing, one on this bank of the river, and the other on that bank of the river.”

The author says "I Daniel" this informs us that the author is Daniel himself, and not someone else. Furthermore the author dates himself in certain passages. Following is one such example:

  • Daniel 7:1-2 and 28: “(1) In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon, Daniel saw a dream and visions in his mind as he lay on his bed; then he wrote the dream down and related the following summary of it. (2) Daniel said, ‘I was looking in my vision by night, and behold, the four winds of heaven were stirring up the great sea.’” (following the context down we read) ......”(28) At this point the revelation ended. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts were greatly alarming me and my face grew pale, but I kept the matter to myself."

Notice the author claims that Daniel had a dream or vision in the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon. Then the author speaks as Daniel himself. My point is that the author gives us every indication that he is Daniel and writing during the time period of which he is speaking. Belshazzar is dated around 539 BC. 

Encarta Encyclopedia 2000, copyright 1993-1999 Microsoft ref

  • BelshazzarBelshazzar (550?-539? BC), in the Old Testament, Babylonian prince mentioned in Daniel 5 as the last Chaldean king of Babylon.”

Enclopaedia Britanica, Multimedia CD 98:

  • Belshazzar, Neo Babylonian BEL-SHAR-USAR, Greek BALTASAR, or BALTHASAR (d. c. 539 BC), coregent of Babylon who was killed at the capture of the city by the Persians. Belshazzar had been known only from the biblical Book of Daniel (chapters 5, 7-8) and from Xenophon’s Cycropaedia until 1854, when references to him were found in Babylonian cunieform inscriptions.”

If Daniel did not write the Book of Daniel during the time period indicated then it is a deception on the part of the author. The author would be a fraud who deceived Josephus the Jewish historian, as well as Jesus himself. Remember Jesus reminded the disciples what was spoken of by Daniel the prophet. (Matthew 24:15-16). If the writer actually lived during the 2nd century BC and wrote as if he was Daniel, who lived during the reign of Belshazzar, then he would not be a prophet, but rather he would be a liar and a fraud. Jesus refers to Daniel as a prophet. Josephus also would not be much of a historian to fail to recognize this fraud.

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SUMMARY

The following reasoning has been discussed showing that the Book of Daniel was not written during the Maccabean wars (167-164 BC), but during the 6th century BC.

  1. The Septuagint, which is a Greek Translation of the older Hebrew manuscripts, was translated 275-100 BC. (a) The Book of Daniel could not have been translated from one language to another until it was actually written. (b) This is not enough time for the Jews to accept a recent fraud as an ancient authoritative work.
  1. Josephus was an early historian who is said to have credibility and his works are invaluable sources for the history of the Jews. Josephus places the person Daniel in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar (605 -561 BC). In this reference Josephus gives an account of Daniel and his friends having their names changed by the king. This reference from Josephus correlates with what we find in the Book of Daniel.
  1. Josephus also makes reference to the Book of Daniel as being complete and already accepted during the time period of Alexander the Great who was born in 356 BC.
  1. Daniel is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel, which is dated the 6th century BC.
  1. Jesus called Daniel a prophet and made a reference to what is written in the Book of Daniel. The Apostle Paul also makes a reference to what is revealed in the Book of Daniel.
  1. There are reference works that accept the dating of Daniel as 6th century BC as well as the genuineness of the book itself. Two references were given: (a) Webster's Family Encyclopedia (b) Easton's Bible Dictionary.
  1. The linguistic character of the book is as might be expected. Certain portions  (Daniel 2:4; 7) are written in the Chaldee language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra.
  1. That Daniel is the writer of this book is also testified to in the book itself (Daniel 7:1-2, 28; 8:2; 15; 27,  9:2; 10:1, 2; 7 12:4, 5).

Daniel did indeed live in the 6th century BC. His predictions concerning the Medes and the Persians taking over Babylon followed by the Greeks conquering the Medes and the Persians are remarkable. These predictions only scratch the surface of the predictions in the Book of Daniel. Nostradamus and Jean Dixon together could not match the detail or accuracy as found in the Book of Daniel. How is this possible? It is because as Daniel says “there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries" (Daniel 2:28). Some of Daniel's prophecy is covered in “Daniel Part 2” below

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INTERESTING QUOTATIONS

  • Isaiah 40:8: “The grass withers, the flower fades, but the word of our God stands forever.”
  • Isaiah 46:10: “Declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient times things which have not been done, saying, 'My purpose will be established, and I will accomplish all My good pleasure...”
  • Time Magazine (Dec. 30, 1974): "After more than two centuries of facing the heaviest scientific guns that could be brought to bear, the bible has survived and perhaps better for the siege even on the critics own terms. Historical fact, the scriptures seem more acceptable now than they did when the rationalist began the attack"
  • Sir Isaac Newton:  "...to reject Daniel is to reject the Christian religion"

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 The Book of Daniel and Prophecy
Part 2, World History Told In Advance

In Daniel Part 1 we covered evidence for the dating of the book of Daniel. Daniel was written in the 6th century BC. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar, under whom Daniel served in the first part of the Book of Daniel, was approximately 561 BC - 605 BC.

The Bible tells us that God has control over kings and governments. God can take governments out or replace them at anytime that He chooses.

Now we will take a look at some of the prophecy of Daniel and how it was fulfilled in history. There is far more detailed prophecy in Daniel then what will be dealt with here. This is only a small taste of what can be found in Daniel. Hopefully this will whet your taste buds for wanting to study more prophecy yourself. This prophecy in the second chapter of Daniel continues even into our future and end times. For our purposes we will only be dealing with those parts that have already come to pass. Some key passages are printed here for you. However, it would be to the reader’s benefit to read each chapter in Daniel before reading the commentary here.

In the beginning of Daniel we find that Nebuchadnezzar is king of Babylon. It is interesting to note that Nebuchadnezzar is king because God has placed him there. In the Bible we can see that God not only can forecast the future, but also controls the future.

  • Jeremiah 28:14: “For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, ‘I have put a yoke of iron on the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylong, and they shall serve him. And I have also given him the beasts of the field.”

Daniel speaking to Nebuchadnezzar said in Daniel 2:37: "You, O king, are the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, the strength, and the glory...”

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 (Read Daniel Chapter 2.)  In Daniel Chapter 2 we find that King Nebuchadnezzar had a dream. He told his wise men that they must tell him both the dream he had and the interpretation. Daniel was the only one who could do this after seeking God in prayer. Following is Daniel's response to the king.

Daniel 2:31-40: 31 "You, O king, were looking and behold, there was a single great statue; that statue, which was large and of extraordinary splendor, was standing in front of you, and its appearance was awesome. 32 The head of that statue was made of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of bronze, 33 its legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of clay. 34 You continued looking until a stone was cut out without hands, and it struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay, and crushed them. 35 "Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were crushed all at the same time, and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away so that not a trace of them was found. But the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. 36 This was the dream; now we shall tell its interpretation before the king. 37 You, O king, are the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, the strength, and the glory;  38 and wherever the sons of men dwell, or the beasts of the field, or the birds of the sky, He has given them into your hand and has caused you to rule over them all. You are the head of gold. 39 And after you there will arise another kingdom inferior to you, then another third kingdom of bronze, which will rule over all the earth. 40 Then there will be a fourth kingdom as strong as iron; inasmuch as iron crushes and shatters all things, so, like iron that breaks in pieces, it will crush and break all these in pieces.”

God was not revealing spiritual truth to Nebuchadnezzar; rather He was showing him what would take place in history concerning himself and the governing authorities after him. Later in Daniel Chapter 4 we find that Nebuchadnezzar has his sanity taken from him until he recognizes God as the one in authority.

We learn in this passage that the dream that was given to King Nebuchadnezzar was about future kingdoms. In this dream he saw a large image and we are told Nebuchadnezzar was the head of gold (verse 38). Following him there are three other kingdoms mentioned (verses 39-40).

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We do not have to guess as to the interpretation of this prophecy. Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon was the head of gold. Following him are three other kingdoms. As for the second kingdom in king Nebuchadnezzar's dream we are only told (verse 39) "And after you there will arise another kingdom inferior to you" This inferior kingdom is represented as the breast and arms of silver in the dream. (verse 32): "The head of that statue was made of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of bronze...” Further interpretation as to the identity of this second kingdom can be found later in the book of Daniel. However Isaiah actually tells us who will overthrow Babylon at least a hundred years before the writing of the book of Daniel. Remember, Daniel was written in the 6th century BC. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar was approximately 561 BC - 605 BC. (While reading don't forget that on the timeline numbers or dates get larger the farther back you go — BC 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 1, 100, 200, 300 AD.)

Webster's Family Encyclopedia, 1989 edition, Volume 6, pg. 1329:

“Isaiah, (8th century BC) Old Testament Prophet. He was influential at the court of the rulers of Judah until the Assyrian invasion (701 BC) and. according to tradition,  was later martyred.” 

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  • Isaiah 13:17-20: 17 Behold, I am going to stir up the Medes against them, who will not value silver or take pleasure in gold, 18 And their bows will mow down the young men, they will not even have compassion on the fruit of the womb, nor will their eye pity children. 19 And Babylon, the beauty of kingdoms, the glory of the Chaldeans' pride, will be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. 20 It will never be inhabited or lived in from generation to generation; nor will the Arab pitch his tent there, nor will shepherds make their flocks lie down there.

Daniel was written in the 6th century BC. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar, whom Daniel served under in the first part of the book of Daniel, was approximately 561 BC - 605 BC. Webster's Family Encyclopedia gives us the date 701 BC as the later part of Isaiah's ministry (701 BC - 605 BC = 96 years).A34 Keep in mind that the Medes and the Persians took over after Nebuchadnezzar.  This means that approximately a hundred years before Daniel God told his people through Isaiah that the Medes would rise up against Babylon. We will soon see that Babylon will be destroyed as Sodom and Gomorrah and will never be inhabited again.

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Daniel Chapter 4 is the last we see of King Nebuchadnezzar. In the beginning of Daniel Chapter 5 we are introduced to Belshazzar. In my study I found that some have questioned Daniel because Belshazzar is said to be the son of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 5:22). I will explain this before we go on to the fulfillment of prophecy. The Aramaic word translated "father" here does not necessarily mean immediate father. It can also mean grandfather or an ancestor, as shown in the following Hebrew\ Aramaic reference works.

Strong's Definitions of Biblical Words

  • 'ab (Aramaic) (ab); KJV — father.

corresponding to 1: 'ab (awb); a primitive word; father, in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application):
KJV-- chief, (fore-) father ([-less]), X patrimony, principal. Compare names in "Abi-".C3

Brown, Driver, Briggs Lexicon
1  'ab-

  • the father of an individual
  • used of God as Father of His people
  • the head or the founder of a household, a group, a family, or a clan
  • an ancestor
    • a grandfather, the forefathers --of a person
    • used of people (in general)

These references show that the word translated as "father" in the following passage can also mean a grandfather or descendant.

  • Daniel 5:2: “When Belshazzar tasted the wine, he gave orders to bring the gold and silver vessels which Nebuchadnezzar his father had taken out of the temple which was in Jerusalem, in order that the king and his nobles, his wives, and his concubines might drink from them.”

           
This same Aramaic word is translated as "fathers" speaking of ancestors in the following passage.

  • Ezra 5:12: “But because our fathers had provoked the God of heaven to wrath, He gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this temple and deported the people to Babylon.”

We find further indication that the passage in Daniel 5:2 is speaking of a descendant of Nebuchadnezzar, rather than an immediate son, in the book of Jeremiah.

  • Jeremiah 27:6-7 "And now I have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, My servant, and I have given him also the wild animals of the field to serve him. And all the nations shall serve him, and his son, and his grandson, until the time of his own land comes; then many nations and great kings will make him their servant.”

In this text we can see that the rule of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon will continue at least until his grandson. As we have already seen in Isaiah the Medes will rise up against Babylon.

In Daniel Chapter 5 Belshazzar brings in some silver vessels that were taken from the temple in Jerusalem so they could use them to toast to the foreign gods and idols. After doing this Belshazzar sees some handwriting supernaturally being written on the wall. Daniel is called in to give King Belshazzar the interpretation. Daniel rebukes him by reminding him that he knew how God humbled King Nebuchadnezzar causing him to lose his sanity for a while. Yet knowing this he used the sacred vessels to toast to the foreign gods and idols, Daniel then gives him the interpretation (read Daniel Chapter 5).

  • Daniel 5:22-29: 22 "’Yet you, his son, Belshazzar, have not humbled your heart, even though you knew all this, 23 but you have exalted yourself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before you, and you and your nobles, your wives and your concubines have been drinking wine from them; and you have praised the gods of silver and gold, of bronze, iron, wood and stone, which do not see, hear or understand. But the God in whose hand are your life-breath and your ways, you have not glorified.’ 24 Then the hand was sent from Him, and this inscription was written out. 25 Now this is the inscription that was written out: 'MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN.' 26 This is the interpretation of the message: 'MENE'-- God has numbered your kingdom and put an end to it. 27 'TEKEL'-- you have been weighed on the scales and found deficient. 28 'PERES'-- your kingdom has been divided and given over to the Medes and Persians. 29 Then Belshazzar gave orders, and they clothed Daniel with purple and put a necklace of gold around his neck, and issued a proclamation concerning him that he now had authority as the third ruler in the kingdom.

Remember that in Daniel Chapter 2 in king Nebuchadnezzar's dream we are told that another power inferior to Nebuchadnezzar and represented by its breast and its arms of silver would arise (Daniel 2:32 and 39). Here we are told that this second kingdom would be the Medes and the Persians. One should not overlook the fact that Daniel includes the Persians with the Medes in the takeover of Babylon. Also Belshazzar speaks of making Daniel the third ruler of the kingdom.

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So the question is: What actually took place in history?

  1. Did Babylonian rule under Nebuchadnezzar last at least until Nebuchadnezzar's grandson as foretold by Jeremiah?
  2. Did the Medes and the Persians conquer Babylon?
  3. How would Daniel be labeled the third ruler in the kingdom under Belshazzar?
  4. Was Babylon destroyed never to be inhabited again as foretold by Isaiah? 

 Encarta Encyclopedia 2000 © 1993-1999 Microsoft®

  • “ref , ‘Belshazzar,’ Belshazzar (550?-539?BC), in the Old Testament, Babylonian prince mentioned in Daniel 5 as the last Chaldean king of Babylon. He was slain when Babylon was captured by the Medes and the Persians. Although no ancient historian mentions his name as one of the successors of the second Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar II, the Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions gave the name Belsaruzar as that of the son of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon. A later inscription suggested that Belshazzar was associated with his father on the throne.

In this encyclopedia article we have seen that:

  • Babylon was captured by the Medes and the Persians as foretold by Daniel and Isaiah. Isaiah's ministry ended around 701 BC. The Medes entered Babylon around 539-550 BC. This means Isaiah foretold the rising of the Medes against Babylon about 150-160 years before it actually happened.
  • Belshazzar was associated with his father on the throne. In other words Nabonidus and his son Belshazzar were co-rulers of Babylon. This is why Daniel was told he would be made the third ruler of the kingdom. Nabinidus and Belshazzar were the first two rulers. Daniel would have been the third ruler if their kingdom had not been overthrown. Remember the promise of being the third ruler came from the pagan king Belshazzar not as part of Daniel's prophecy. This does however give credibility to the historical part of Daniel.

Enclopaedia Britanica, Multimedia CD 98

  • “Belshazzar, Neo-Babylonian BEL-SHAR-USUR, Greek BALTASAR, or BALTHASAR (d. c. 539 BC), coregent of Babylon who was killed at the capture of the city by the Persians. Belshazzar had been known only from the biblical Book of Daniel (chapters 5, 7-8) and from Xenophon's Cyropaedia until 1854, when references to him were found in Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions. Though he is referred to in the Book of Daniel as the son of Nebuchadrezzar, the Babylonian inscriptions indicate that he was in fact the eldest son of Nabonidus, who was king of Babylon from 555 to 539, and of Nitocris, who was perhaps a daughter of Nebuchadrezzar. When Nabonidus went into exile (550), he entrusted Belshazzar with the throne and the major part of his army.”

In this encyclopedia article we have seen that:

  • Babylon was captured by the Persians as foretold by Daniel.
  • King Belshazzar was very likely related to King Nebuchadnezzar. Belshazzar was the son of Nabonidus and Nitocris. Notocris being the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar would make Belshazzar the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar. This would fulfill the Babylonian kingdom lasting until the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar as foretold by Jeremiah 622 BC.
  • Before 1854 which is a couple of thousand years later our main reference for the existence of Belshazzar was the Bible. This is not an isolated event by any means. This alone should help us to recognize the credibility of the Bible.

The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, 1990

  • “BABYLON (CITY OF); BABYLONIANS One of the most important cities of Mesopotamia, whose ancient name probably meant ‘the gate of the gods’. ....................... It was not until the downfall of Assyria that Babylon, in the time of Nebuchadnezzar II, rose again to the status of the most important city in Mesopotamia. Cyrus, King of Persia, conquered the city, which then became part of the Persian Empire. In 331 bc Babylon was conquered by Alexander the Great, who attempted to rebuild the venerated but decaying city. With his untimely death its long decline set in and in the Roman period it was no more than a famous heap of ruins.”     

In this reference work we seen:

  • Babylon was conquered by Persia as foretold by Daniel.
  • Although Babylon was once considered the most important city in Mesopotamia it was left a heap of ruins and uninhabited as foretold by Isaiah approximately 701 BC.

Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia 2000 © 1999 The Learning Company, Inc.

  • “(Babylon)  Babylon lost its independence forever when it fell to Cyrus the Great of Persia in 539 BC, but it continued to be a center of trade and culture. It was still fairly prosperous when Alexander the Great took up his residence in Nebuchadnezzar's palace, where he died in 323 BC. His successor, Seleucus, built a new city, Seleucia, nearby on the Tigris, because it had a deeper channel for navigation. From this time Babylon rapidly decayed. Its structures, which were faced with glazed brick, were torn down to provide brick for building elsewhere, and the once proud capital was reduced to a vast ruin. The ruins are near the town of al Hillah in Iraq.”

In this encyclopedia article we have seen that:

  • Babylon was conquered by the Persians as foretold by Daniel.
  • The city of Babylon is left still uninhabited in Iraq as foretold by Isaiah.

So far we have covered the first two kingdoms in Nebuchadnezzar's dream. Nebuchadnezzar's kingdom is the head of gold. (BABYLON). The second kingdom represented by the breast and arms of silver was the Medes and the Persians. The third kingdom in Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the statue was its belly and its thighs of bronze (Daniel 2:32 and 39) We do not have to guess as to the interpretation of this kingdom of bronze, either. We can see that the kingdoms, starting from Nebuchadnezzar represented as the head of gold, are following in consecutive order. We also know who the first two kingdoms are (Babylon being the first and the Medes and the Persians being the second). Daniel has a vision that we find in Chapter 8 where these kingdoms overlap.

  • Daniel 8:4-7: “4 I saw the ram butting westward, northward, and southward, and no other beasts could stand before him, nor was there anyone to rescue from his power; but he did as he pleased and magnified himself. 5 While I was observing, behold, a male goat was coming from the west over the surface of the whole earth without touching the ground; and the goat had a conspicuous horn between his eyes. 6 And he came up to the ram that had the two horns, which I had seen standing in front of the canal, and rushed at him in his mighty wrath. 7 And I saw him come beside the ram, and he was enraged at him; and he struck the ram and shattered his two horns, and the ram had no strength to withstand him. So he hurled him to the ground and trampled on him, and there was none to rescue the ram from his power.”

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Introducing the kingdom of Greece

In this text we see that the ram was the one in power. Then we see a male goat that strikes the ram. We also see the ram had no strength to withstand the goat. In other words the goat overcame the ram. So who are the goat and the ram? The following text tells us.

  • Daniel 8:16-22:  “16 And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, and he called out and said, ‘Gabriel, give this man an understanding of the vision.’ 17 So he came near to where I was standing, and when he came I was frightened and fell on my face; but he said to me, ‘Son of man, understand that the vision pertains to the time of the end.’ 18 Now while he was talking with me, I sank into a deep sleep with my face to the ground; but he touched me and made me stand upright. 19 And he said, ‘Behold, I am going to let you know what will occur at the final period of the indignation, for it pertains to the appointed time of the end. 20 The ram which you saw with the two horns represents the kings of Media and Persia. 21 And the shaggy goat represents the kingdom of Greece, and the large horn that is between his eyes is the first king.  22 And the broken horn and the four horns that arose in its place represent four kingdoms which will arise from his nation, although not with his power.’”

In this text we see that the ram represents the Medes and the Persians. We have already seen the Medes and the Persians as the ones who would conquer Babylon, in the writing on the wall seen by Belshazzar in Daniel Chapter 5. Now we see that the shaggy goat that represents the kingdom of Greece is the one that would conquer the Medes and the Persians. So the next question is "Did the kingdom of Greece conquer the Medes and the Persians in history?"

Encarta Encyclopedia 2000 © 1993-1999 Microsoft®

  • “ ‘Ancient Greece’  B2 Macedonian Supremacy (359-323 BC) Two Macedonian kings, Philip II (ruled 359-336 BC) and his son Alexander the Great (ruled 336-323 BC), filled the power vacuum in Greece by turning their formerly weak kingdom into an international superpower. The mountainous kingdom of Macedonia, north of the central Greek heartland, eventually became the leader of Greece and conqueror of the Persian empire.

From this encyclopedia article we learn that:

  • Alexander the Great was the leader of a Greek empire.
  • Alexander conquered the Persian Empire.

Encarta Encyclopedia 2000 © 1993-1999 Microsoft®

  • “ ‘Persia,’  III ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE SELEUCIDS. Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, conquered the Persian Empire in a series of battles between 334 and 331 BC. Alexander integrated Persia into his empire, and by 323 BC, when he died, Alexander ruled most of the civilized world.”

From this encyclopedia article we learn that:

  • Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire 334-331 BC.
  • Keep in mind that Nebuchadnezzar reigned approximately 605-561 BC. Daniel interpreted his dream during this time period. This means that Daniel foretold the Medes and the Persians being conquered by the Greeks at least 200 years before it actually happened.

The text we looked at in Daniel Chapter 8 goes into further detail concerning the Greek empire (verse 22). We are told that four kingdoms would arise from the Greek empire. This division is not mentioned in our text in Daniel Chapter 2. As one reads Daniel, especially the detail in Chapter 11, it is easy to see that there is much more detail than what I am covering here. However that would be a book in itself. For the sake of brevity I am sticking to the basic outline as seen in Daniel Chapter 2. This division actually still falls within the Greek empire in the text as well as what took place in history.

The Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy, page 380

  • “After Alexander's death in 323 and the eventual fall of his leading general Antigonus in 301, the empire divided into some four major areas, controlled by Greek generals: Macedonia under Cassander, Asia Minor under Lysimachus, Syria and eastward under Selecus, and Egypt under Ptolemy.”

These Greek generals are also listed as successors of Alexander the Great by the 1st century Jewish Historian Josephus (The Works of Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, Book 12, Chapter 1). (PDF pg. 441)

Concerning Nebuchadnezzar's dream in Daniel Chapter 2, we have now covered the first three kingdoms:

  • Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon were represented by the head of gold (Daniel 2:32 and 38).
  • Babylon was then conquered by the Medes and the Persians, which was said to be an inferior kingdom and represented as the breast and arms of silver (Daniel 2:32-39, and Daniel 5:28).
  • The Medes and the Persians were then conquered by the Greeks, represented as the belly and thighs of bronze (Daniel 2:32 and Daniel 8:20-21).

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The Roman Empire

The fourth kingdom is unlike the first three kingdoms; while we were specifically told who they were, the fourth kingdom is not interpreted and named for us in Scripture. We know the succession of the first three kingdoms — (1) Babylon; (2) The Medes and the Persians;   (3) The Greeks. History tells us that the empire that followed the succession of these three empires was the Roman Empire. Therefore, all we have to do is look at the description given to us in the Bible and see if it correlates with the Roman Empire. First we will give a couple of references showing that the Roman Empire did indeed follow the Greek Empire. 

Enclopaedia Britanica, Multimedia CD 98

  • The forms of Government, Primitive Government, the spread of civilization

The empire of the Medes and Persians was overthrown by Alexander of Macedon; the Macedonian successor states were conquered by Rome...”

“Alexander of Macedon” was “Alexander the Great”, as can be seen in the following reference.

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Electronic Database

  • “ALEXANDER, THE GREAT, Parentage and Early Life: Alexander, of Macedon, commonly called ‘the Great’ (born 356 BC), was the son of Philip, king of Macedon, and of Olympias, daughter of Neoptolemos, an Epeirote king.”

Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia © 1999

  • ROMAN EMPIRE’. When the ancient Greeks were reaching the height of their glory, the power of Rome, to the west, was slowly rising. The genius of the Greeks lay in art, literature, science, and philosophy. The Romans were best in warfare, engineering, and government.   Rome rose to power gradually, with no set plan for world conquest. The Romans fought many wars and enslaved many people. By the time of Augustus, shortly before Christ, most of the known world was unified and at peace under Roman rule.”

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000 © 1993-1999

  • " ‘Ancient Greece,’ In the Hellenistic kingdoms, foreigners — kings and queens of Greek and Macedonian descent — had unrestricted rule over local populations. This kind of rule disturbed Greeks, who remembered their history of freedom. Therefore, in the 2nd century BC when the kingdoms had been weakened by war, some mainland Greeks appealed for help from the region's growing superpower, Rome....Within about a hundred years, Rome conquered the remaining Hellenistic kingdoms and their Greek cities.

Now that we have established that the Roman Empire did indeed follow the Greek Empire, we will examine the Biblical description of this empire.

  • Daniel 2:33-45: “its legs of iron, its feet partly of iron and partly of clay. (34) You continued looking until a stone was cut out without hands, and it struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay, and crushed them. (35) Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were crushed all at the same time, and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away so that not a trace of them was found. But the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. (36) "This was the dream; now we shall tell its interpretation before the king. (37) You, O king, are the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, the strength, and the glory; (38) and wherever the sons of men dwell, or the beasts of the field, or the birds of the sky, He has given them into your hand and has caused you to rule over them all. You are the head of gold. (39) And after you there will arise another kingdom inferior to you, then another third kingdom of bronze, which will rule over all the earth. (40) "Then there will be a fourth kingdom as strong as iron; inasmuch as iron crushes and shatters all things, so, like iron that breaks in pieces, it will crush and break all these in pieces. (41) "And in that you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter's clay and partly of iron, it will be a divided kingdom; but it will have in it the toughness of iron, inasmuch as you saw the iron mixed with common clay. (42) "And as the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of pottery, so some of the kingdom will be strong and part of it will be brittle. (43) And in that you saw the iron mixed with common clay, they will combine with one another in the seed of men; but they will not adhere to one another, even as iron does not combine with pottery. (44) And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another people; it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever. (45) Inasmuch as you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands and that it crushed the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold, the great God has made known to the king what will take place in the future; so the dream is true, and its interpretation is trustworthy."

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One should notice that in verse 40 we are told, "Then there will be a fourth kingdom". Observe that this fourth kingdom is spoken of singularly. In verse 41 when we are told, "it will be a divided kingdom" — it is still spoken of singularly. Then in verse 44 we find kings and kingdoms in plural, not singular. It is in the days of these kings and kingdoms in which the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed. There are those that interpret this last part a little differently, but the end result is still the same. First we will look at "the divided kingdom" then we will move on to the "kingdom which will never be destroyed" in verses 44-45.

a) The division of the Roman Empire
"And in that you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter's clay and partly of iron, it will be a divided kingdom." (Daniel 2:41)

  • The Roman Empire was dived into two divisions between the East and the West.  Some commentators see this as the division spoken of in verse 41.

Webster's Family Encyclopedia, 1989 edition, Volume 9, Page 2209

  • Roman Empire’: The imperial period of ancient Roman history from 27 BC, when Octavian became emperor as * Augustus, until 476 AD....The 3rd century saw a rapid succession of army-nominated emperors, while Rome's frontiers were threatened by the aggression of the * Sasanians and the Goths. * Diocletian (reigned 284-305) countered these attacks with the reorganization of the Empire between East and West.

The Universal World Reference Encyclopedia, © 1947, Volume 13-14

  • ‘Rome, or The Roman Empire’:....In 27 BC Octavian became first emperor of Rome under the title of Augustus....In 284 Diocletian reorganized the empire, and for nearly 200 years reforms delayed the inevitable disruption; but in 395 the empire separated into two divisions; the Eastern or Byzantine. and the Western....”

                                                                                            
b) The division of the Roman Empire
"And in that you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter's clay and partly of iron, it will be a divided kingdom.” (Daniel 2:41)

  • Other commentators see the division as being between the Jewish religious leaders who maintained authority or influence in the government and the Roman government. The Romans and the Jews, although cohabiting, certainly did not mix well as with the clay and the iron in the text in Daniel 2:42-43.

SANHEDRIN (from Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary)

“[SAN hee drun] (a council or assembly) — the highest ruling body and court of justice among the Jewish people in the time of Jesus. Headed by the high priest of Israel, the Sanhedrin was granted limited authority over certain religious, civil, and criminal matters by the foreign nations that dominated the land of Israel at various times in its history. The Sanhedrin was exercising this limited power when it charged Jesus with the crime of blasphemy but then sent him to Pilate, the Roman official, for a formal trial and sentencing.”

ROMAN EMPIRE (from Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary)

“The situation of the Jews varied considerably under the different Roman rulers. Basically, the Romans treated the Jews fairly. Herod the Great rebuilt the Temple in 20 BC, and Herod Agrippa sought Jewish favor by persecuting the Christians <Acts 12:1-3>. Archelaus, on the other hand, was a cruel and tyrannical ruler who massacred many Jews <Matt. 2:22>. Resentful of the presence of these foreign oppressors, the Jews refused to recognize anyone but God as sovereign.”

c) The division of the Roman Empire
"And in that you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter's clay and partly of iron, it will be a divided kingdom.” (Daniel 2:41)

  • Other commentators see the division of the Roman Empire as something that still continues to this day. They see ten divisions within the Roman Empire corresponding to the ten toes in Nebuchadnezzar's dream and the ten horns mentioned in Daniel chapter 7 and Revelation chapter 17.

In Vernon McGee's commentary on Daniel, on page 47 he states, "The Roman Empire fell apart — no enemy destroyed it. Rome is still living in the great nations of Europe today: Italy, France, Great Britain, Germany, and Spain are all part of the Roman Empire. The laws of Rome live on and her language also.”

Groliers Multimedia Encyclopedia

  • ‘Rome, ancient’: Ancient Rome grew from a small prehistoric settlement on the Tiber River in Latium in central Italy into an empire that encompassed all of the Mediterranean world.  The Romans developed a civilization that formed the basis for modern Western civilization.”

(This encyclopedia article tends to agree somewhat with those who claim the Roman Empire can still be seen in the world today.)

SUMMARY OF THE DIVISION

The Bible tells us that the fourth kingdom (the Roman Empire) will be a divided kingdom. Exactly how it is divided the Bible does not actually say. Each of the divisions that were covered have some valid points as well as confirmation found in history. It is logical then to conclude that this portion of prophecy is valid because the Roman Empire was indeed divided.

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IN THE DAYS OF THOSE KINGS

"And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another people; it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever. Inasmuch as you saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands and that it crushed the iron, the bronze, the clay, the silver, and the gold, the great God has made known to the king what will take place in the future; so the dream is true, and its interpretation is trustworthy."
(Daniel 2:44-45)

Here is where our text in Daniel Chapter 2 shifts. The fourth kingdom in verse 40 is spoken as a single kingdom. Next we have some sort of division of the fourth kingdom and then after that we have kingdoms in plural, in which time the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed. The reader should also take notice of the fact that the image that Nebuchadnezzar saw was destroyed by a stone that was cut out without hands (Daniel 2:34-35 and 44-45).

There are three questions that should be asked here.

  1. What sort of kingdom will never be destroyed and will last forever?
  2. What is the stone that destroys the image that Nebuchadnezzar saw?
  3. When are "the days of those kings" as we see in verse 44?
  1. What sort of kingdom will never be destroyed and will last forever?

In the Bible the only kingdom that will last forever is a heavenly kingdom. The kingdom of Christ will have no end.

  • Isaiah 9:6-7: “For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; and the government will rest on His shoulders; and His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this.”
  • Daniel 7:13-14: "I kept looking in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming, and He came up to the Ancient of Days and was presented before Him. And to Him was given dominion, glory and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and men of every language might serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion which will not pass away; and His kingdom is one which will not be destroyed.
  • Luke 1:31-33: "And behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever; and His kingdom will have no end."
  • John 18:36: “Jesus answered, ‘My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting, that I might not be delivered up to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm.’”
  • Revelation 11:15: “And the seventh angel sounded; and there arose loud voices in heaven, saying, ‘The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever.’”

The Bible, including the book of Daniel, tells us that the kingdom which will never be destroyed is Christ’s kingdom. We can then logically conclude that the kingdom which is to follow the division of the Roman Empire is Christ's kingdom.

  1. What is the stone that destroys the image that Nebuchadnezzar saw?

 Considering that the Bible tells us that the kingdom that will never be destroyed is Christ's kingdom, it is interesting to find that Jesus Christ is also referred to as a stone.

  • Isaiah 28:16: “Therefore thus says the Lord GOD, ‘Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, a costly cornerstone for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it will not be disturbed.’”
  • Matthew 21:42-45: “Jesus said to them, ‘Did you never read in the Scriptures, ‘The stone which the builders rejected, this became the chief corner stone; this came about from the Lord, and it is marvelous in our eyes'? Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you, and be given to a nation producing the fruit of it. And he who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces; but on whomever it falls, it will scatter him like dust." And when the chief priests and the Pharisees heard His parables, they understood that He was speaking about them.”
  • Acts 4:10-12: “...let it be known to all of you, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead — by this name this man stands here before you in good health. He is the stone which was rejected by you, the builders, but which became the very corner stone. And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men, by which we must be saved."
  • Romans 9:32-33: “Why? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as though it were by works. They stumbled over the stumbling stone, just as it is written, ‘Behold, I lay in Zion a stone of stumbling and a rock of offense, and he who believes in Him will not be disappointed."
  • Ephesians 2:20: “.having been built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone
  • 1 Corinthians 10:4: “and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ.

The stone that King Nebuchadnezzar saw in his dream was cut out without hands. This is an indication that what was to come was beyond human means. This stone in Nebuchadnezzar's dream destroyed all of the earthly nations (Daniel 2:34-35). Furthermore, in the Bible, the kingdom which will never be destroyed is Christ's kingdom. Then we find that Jesus Christ is referred to as a stone in Scripture. The Bible reveals to us that Jesus Christ is the stone that destroys all of the earthly kingdoms and sets up his own kingdom that will have no end. According to the Book of Daniel this will take place after the division of the fourth kingdom (The Roman Empire, Daniel 2:40-45).

  1. When are "the days of those kings" as we see in verse 44?

Daniel 2:44: "And in the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another people; it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever.”

There are two dominate views of this within the Christian church today:

  • In the days of the Roman Empire Christ’s Kingdom was set up and it will have no end.

In this view Christ's kingdom is seen in a spiritual sense in that Christ has already overcome the world, and by accepting Jesus we enter into His kingdom rule now. This view also maintains that there will later be a literal fulfillment when all the nations will come to an end.

  • John 16:33: "These things I have spoken to you, that in Me you may have peace. In the world you have tribulation, but take courage; I have overcome the world."
  • Colossians 1:13: “For He delivered us from the domain of darkness, and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son....”
  • In the days of the kingdoms derived from the division of the Roman Empire, Christ’s kingdom will be set up. (This would be the nations we see today, as seen earlier in McGee's commentary on Daniel and in the book National Sunday Law by A. Jan Marcussen.)

This view takes the more literal approach, declaring that all of the nations were not actually overthrown as seen in Daniel. This literal view expects this to take place as part of the fulfillment of the Book of Revelation.

  • Daniel 2:35: "Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were crushed all at the same time, and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away so that not a trace of them was found. But the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.”
  • Revelation 11:15: “And the seventh angel sounded; and there arose loud voices in heaven, saying, ‘The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord, and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever.’”

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WHY IS ANY OF THIS IMPORTANT?

Keep in mind that Daniel lived in the 6th century BC. The book of Daniel accurately foretold the Medes and the Persians conquering the Babylonian empire. Furthermore Daniel accurately foretold the Greeks as being the ones that would conquer the Medes and the Persians. Then we are introduced to the Roman Empire which, we were told, would be divided. Up to this point we have several hundred years of history predicted accurately. Considering that the Book of Daniel accurately foretold of the rise and fall of major world powers over a period of several hundred years; it is a good bet that the rest of this prophecy will come true as well. Whichever view one takes as to when this will happen the result is still the same. Jesus Christ will indeed rule and all earthly kingdoms will be abolished. The Bible also tells us there is life after death, so it will effect everyone, no matter when it takes place. The question then is how will Jesus respond to you when you ask for entrance into his kingdom?

  • Matthew 10:33: "But whoever shall deny Me before men, I will also deny him before My Father who is in heaven.”
  • Mark 8:38: "For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels."
  • I John 2:22-25: “Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, the one who denies the Father and the Son. Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father; the one who confesses the Son has the Father also. As for you, let that abide in you which you heard from the beginning. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, you also will abide in the Son and in the Father. And this is the promise which He Himself made to us: eternal life.”

The Bible tells us that no one is good enough on their own to gain entrance into the kingdom of God. However Jesus paid the full price for all of our sins. All we have to do is ask for His forgiveness and surrender our life to Him and we will dwell with Him forever.

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THE BIBLE REVEALS SCIENTIFIC FACT PRIOR TO HUMAN DISCOVERY
The Bible, unlike any other collection of writing, is unique in the fact that is surpasses mankind's abilities. The prophecies in the Bible that have already been fulfilled are what most point to as proof that the Bible is truly the Word of God. No man has ever been able to predict the future with the detail and accuracy that the Bible has shown. However, the Bible is in no way limited in providing evidence to the fact that it is indeed the Word of God. Another area that shows the Bible’s authenticity is science.

Most informed Christians will readily admit that the Bible is not a textbook about science. You cannot prove the Bible to be the Word of God based solely on science. Then again, neither does science refute the Bible. While there is a certain “religion vs. science” mindset out there, in fact, the Bible has never been proven scientifically wrong. (The same cannot be said about some theories proposed by scientists, over the years). Science and the Bible are in harmony in areas where they do meet. But the Bible was written to reveal God to mankind. The Bible was not written to teach anybody about science.

Here are some examples in which the Bible mentions scientific facts that today we know are true. What is amazing about these examples is that the Bible declared them as fact long before mankind discovered they were true!

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Job 26:7: "He stretches out the north over empty space, and hangs the earth on nothing."

Keep in mind that Job lived almost 2,000 years before Christ. The concept that the earth was suspended on nothing was not even considered by scientists for thousands of years after Job. Now, with our satellites and trips into space, we know this to be true — but such was not known in Job's day. The Egyptians declared the earth rested on pillars. The Greeks said it was carried on the back of Atlas. People believed many things, but they did not come close to believing what we know to be true today, and what Job declared a few thousand years ago. How did Job know this was true when science had not yet discovered it?

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Job 28:25: "When He imparted weight to the wind, and meted out the waters by measure...”

Does air have weight? In 1643 a mathematician named Evangelista Torricelli performed an experiment to learn if air has weight. His experiment is what led to the making of our barometer. The relative weights of air and water are needed for the efficient functioning of the world's hydrologic cycle, which in turn sustains life on the earth.

Nasa.gov relates an experiment that children can do to verify this fact. Simply make a scale that pivots and balances correctly. Hang two empty balloons on each side, and balance it out. Then remove one balloon, blow it up, then hang it back in the same place. The side with the inflated balloon will alter downwards, because it now has the weight of the air inside the balloon.

The discovery of air containing weight was made during the 16th century; remember, Job lived almost 2,000 years before Christ. The book of Job told us air has weight before science discovered this was true.

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Leviticus 17:11: “For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement.”

During George Washington's time, the practice of blood-letting to treat various kinds of illnesses was common. This practice is actually what killed him. An understanding of this verse in the Bible could have spared his life. In today's world it is common knowledge that blood circulation is vital for our survival. William Harvey (1 April 1578  – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart.   Yet all critics will agree that the Book of Leviticus was written a few thousand years ago (any year that falls in BC is long before the 1600s and William Harvey).

We were told that “the life of the flesh is in the blood” in Leviticus, long before science discovered the details of this truth.

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Job 36:27-30: “27) For He draws up the drops of water, they distill rain from the mist, 28) Which the clouds pour down, they drip upon man abundantly. 29) Can anyone understand the spreading of the clouds, the thundering of His pavilion? 30) Behold, He spreads His lightning about Him, and He covers the depths of the sea.”

This Bible reference clearly describes evaporation and its cycle, which we now refer to as the hydrological cycle. We also see that the context includes the sea. However, the Greeks believed that spring water came from the oceans and was purified in the ground, making fresh water. The understanding of the evaporation process, as described in the Book of Job, was not discovered and understood until the 17th century.

Here is a short related quote from Chapter 11 of the 1999 NGWA Press publication, Ground Water Hydrology for Water Well Contractors (nwga.org) that you may find interesting:
"Before the 17th century, many natural philosophers accepted the Greek theory (proposed by people who lived in a semiarid climate on limestone hills) that rainfall was insufficient to feed springs and rivers. It was thought that spring water was purified sea water from deep within the earth (reverse osmosis?) .However, in 1580, Bernard Palissy proposed the theory of the hydrologic cycle. Pierre Perrault (1608-1680) made careful observations of rainfall and stream flow in the Seine River basin, confirming Palissy's hunch and thus began the study of modern scientific hydrology."

In Job, we find the Bible describes the hydrological cycle long before science discovers the reality of it.

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Job 38:16: "Have you entered into the springs of the sea? Or have you walked in the recesses of the deep?”

Think how this must have sounded to Job. There is no way that anybody in his day could have known there were springs in the ocean. It is not like anybody went deep sea diving, or any other type of underwater exploration.

Today we know that hot springs or hydrothermal vents come from the ocean floor. Scientist first discovered these in the 1970's. How could Job possibly know that there were springs of any kind on the ocean floor?

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Ecclesiastes 1:6: “Blowing toward the south, then turning toward the north, the wind continues swirling along; and on its circular courses the wind returns.”

A study of Jet Stream & Trade Winds will show you that the wind does go in the circular course as described in this verse that was written in between 930-970 BC. 
Jet Stream was discovered during World War 2. 
The Trade Winds were discovered during the time of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
(earthguide.ucsd.edu & Wikipedia.org)
How did Solomon know about this in 900 BC? C2

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Isaiah 44:24: “Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, ‘I, the LORD, am the maker of all things, stretching out the heavens by myself, and spreading out the earth all alone...

There are a number of Bible references speaking of the stretching out of the heavens. Isaiah is not the oldest reference, but it was written about 740 BC.

With the discoveries found with the Hubble Telescope and studies of red shifts most scientists today will agree that the universe has expanded. K8 This is something that has just been discovered in our life time, but the Bible declared the heavens were stretched out in about 17 different passages, several thousand years ago.

Looking at the Bible, we see that there is no other document, whether it be religious or non religious, that provides this kind of credentials or uniqueness. In prophecies we see the Bible tell world history in advance and much of it has already happened. So the sincere student can check out if the Bible really can foretell the future by looking to see if it was accurate on predictions in the past. Well it does not end there. The Bible also had knowledge of scientific details long before they were discovered by mankind. How is that possible? Perhaps because the Bible it is what exactly what it claims to be: the written word of God!

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